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Bone Manifestation of Faulty Perinatal Hormonal Imprinting: A Review


G. Csaba *   Pages 1 - 6 ( 6 )


Hormonal imprinting takes place at the first encounter between the developing receptor and its target hormone and the encounter determines the receptor's binding capacity for life. In the critical period of development, when the window for imprinting is open, the receptor can be misdirected by related hormones, synthetic hormones, and industrial or communal endocrine disruptors which cause faulty hormonal imprinting with life-long consequences. Considering these facts, the hormonal imprinting is a functional teratogen provoking alterations in the perinatal (early postnatal) period. One single encounter with a low dose of the imprinter in the critical developmental period is enough for the formation of faulty imprinting, which is manifested later, in adult age. This has been justified in the immune system, in sexuality, in animal behavior and brain neurotransmitters etc. by animal experiments and human observations. This review points to the faulty hormonal imprinting in the case of bones (skeleton), by single or repeated treatments. The imprinting is an epigenetic alteration which is inherited to the progeny generations. From clinical aspect, the faulty imprinting can have a role in the pathological development of the bones as well, as in the risk of osteoporotic fractures, etc.


endocrine disruptors , Bone, neurotransmitters, hormonal imprinting , endocrine cell, hormone


Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest

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