Capriati Teresa*, Diamanti Antonella and de Ville de Goyet Jean Pages 92 - 105 ( 14 )
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired severe disease of the digestive system affecting mostly premature babies, possibly fatal and frequently associated to systemic complications. Because of the severity of this condition and the possible long-term consequences on the child’s development, many studies have aimed at preventing the occurrence of the primary events at the level of the bowel wall (ischemia and necrosis followed by sepsis) by modifying or manipulating the diet (breast milk versus formula) and/or the feeding pattern (time for initiation after birth, continuous versus bolus feeding, modulation of intake according clinical events). Feeding have been investigated so far in order to prevent NEC. However, currently well-established and shared clinical nutritional practices are not available in preventing NEC. Nutritional and surgical treatments of NEC are instead well defined. In selected cases surgery is a therapeutic option of NEC, requiring sometimes partial intestinal resection responsible for short bowel syndrome. In this paper we will investigate the available options for treating NEC according to the Walsh and Kliegman classification, focusing on feeding practices in managing short bowel syndrome that can complicate NEC. We will also analyze the proposed ways of preventing NEC.
Necrotizing enterocolitis, preterm infants, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, surgical treatment, prevention.
Artificial Nutrition in Pediatric Children's Hospital, Bambino Gesu, Rome, Artificial Nutrition in Pediatric Children's Hospital, Bambino Gesu, Rome, Pediatric Department for the Treatment and Study of abdominal Disease and Abdominal Transplants, ISMETT-UPMC, Palermo