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Occipital Encephalocele: Cause, Incidence, Neuroimaging and Surgical Management


Ivana Markovic, Petar Bosnjakovic and Zoran Milenkovic*   Pages 1 - 6 ( 6 )


Encephalocele (E) is a defect of the neural tube that refers to congenital malformations featured by skull defect and dura with extracranial spread of intracranial structures. Occipital encephalocele (OE)are the most common form of this congenital disorder and are manifested as a swelling of different sizes over the occipital bone in the midline. They are more frequent in females than in males. Although the exact cause of E is unknown, it is probably multifactorial , including both genetic and environmental factors. The incidence is between 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10,000 live births; approximately 90% of them involve the midline. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice in diagnosis of OE and surgery is the best option for the treatment of OE. Overall morbidity and mortality is still high in spite of advenced surgical management ,but have been significantly improved in recent years thanks to sophisticated high-resolution imaging , adequate and proper surgical treatment and decent post-operative care.


Neural tube defects, encephalocele, occipital encephalocele, magnetic resonance imaging


Radiology Dept., SQU Hospital, Muscat, Radiology Dept., Ibn Sina Hospital, General Hospital ‘Sava Surgery’ Blvrd.Zorana Djindjica 91, Nis

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