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Practical Approach to Children Presenting with Eosinophila and Hypereosinophilia

Author(s):

Giorgio Costagliola, Serena Di Marco, Pasquale Comberiati, Sofia D’Elios, Nino Petashvili, Maria Elisa Di Cicco and Diego Peroni*   Pages 1 - 8 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Eosinophilia is not a rare finding in clinical practice, and often poses problems in terms of etiologic research and differential diagnosis. Peripheral eosinophilia is defined by a blood eosinophil count > 500 cells/µL. It is classified into mild (500-1500 cells/µl), moderate (1500-5000 cells/µl) and severe for an eosinophil count > 5000 cells /µl. The term “hypereosinophilia” defines a condition characterized by a blood eosinophil count >1500 cells/µl in at least two consecutive tests made with a minimum of a 4-week interval. The causes of eosinophilia are various, and can be summarized by the acronym “APLV” which refers to Allergic disorders, Parasitic infections, Leukemia/Lymphomas (and solid tumors) and Vasculitis-Immunodeficiency diseases, with allergic disorders and parasitic infections representing the most commonly identified causes. Allergic disorders are usually associated with mild eosinophilia, whereas values >20.000 cell/µl are highly suggestive for myeloproliferative disorders. Eosinophils may also be directly responsible for organ damage, mainly at cardiac, pulmonary and cutaneous level, deriving from the release of the granule products, of lipidic mediators and cytokines. Therefore, in the physician’s approach to a patient with persistent hypereosinophilia, it is also important to investigate the presence of organ involvement. In this review, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for children presenting with either blood eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia. This algorithm focuses on the patient’s history and clinical manifestations as the first step and on the level and persistence of blood eosinophilia as the second, and this can help the physician to identify patients presenting with an elevated blood eosinophil count that need further laboratory or instrumental investigations.

Keywords:

Allergy, Asthma, Atopic dermatitis, DRESS, Eosinophil, Eosinophilia, Hypereosinophylic syndromes, Parasites

Affiliation:

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa



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