Walusa A. Gonçalves-Ferri, Agnes A.S. Albuquerque, Patricia Martinez Evora and Paulo R.B. Evora*
The present review was carried out to describe publications on the use of methylene blue (MB) in pediatrics and neonatology, discussing dose, infusion rate, action characteristics and possible benefits for a pediatric patient group. The research was performed on the data sources PubMed, BioMed Central, and Embase (updated on Aug 31, 2020) by two independent investigators. The selected articles included human studies that evaluated MB use in pediatric or neonatal patients with vasoplegia due to any cause, regardless of the applied methodology. The MB use and 0 to18-years-old patients with vasodilatory shock were the adopted criteria. Exclusion criteria were the use of MB in patients without vasoplegia and patients ≥ 18-years-old. The primary endpoint was the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Side effects and dose were also evaluated. Eleven studies were found of which 10 were case reports and 1 was a randomized clinical study. Only two of these studies were with neonatal patients (less than 28 days-old), reporting a small number of cases (1 and 6). All studies described positive action of MB on MAP, allowing the decrease of vasoactive amines in several of them. No severe side effects or death related to the use of the medication was reported. The maximum dose used was 2 mg/kg, but there was no consensus on the infusion rate and drug administration timing. Finally, no theoretical or experimental basis sustains the decision to avoid MB in children claiming it can cause pulmonary hypertension. The same goes for the concern of a possible deleterious effect on inflammatory distress syndrome.
circulatory shock, vasoplegia, methylene blue, nitric oxide
Department of Pediatrics. Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, Department of Surgery and Anatomy. Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, Department of Surgery and Anatomy. Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, Department of Surgery and Anatomy. Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo