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Evaluation of Maternal and Infantile Levels of Vitamin D in Preterm Infants


Hassan Boskabadi, Ali Moradi and Maryam Zakerihamidi*  


Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy and in premature infants. This study was done to investigate the maternal and infantile levels of vitamin D in preterm infants.

Methods: Using available sampling during 2018-2020 the maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin D were measured in 294 premature infants in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. A researcher-made questionnaire containing neonatal demographic and clinical characteristics was used as data collection tool. Both maternal and placental vitamin D levels were categorized into four classes: severe deficiency (vitamin D<10 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (10.1≤vitamin D≤20 ng/ml), mild deficiency (20.1≤vitamin D≤30 ng/ml) and normal (vitamin D >30.1ng ml).

Results: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 89% of premature infants (46.6% severe, 30.6% moderate, and 11.9% mild). Serum levels of vitamin D were 18.28±13.94 ng/ml and 14.10±9.70 ng/ml in mothers and infants, respectively. The infants below and above 32 weeks had vitamin D values of: 10.97±6.31 ng/ml and 18.05±11.64 ng/ml, respectively. The difference in vitamin D levels between boys (12.59±8.40 ng/ml) and girls (16.05±11.45 ng/ml) was significant (P=0.009). Moderate and severe vitamin D deficiency were more common at earlier pregnancy ages (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is more common and severe in preterm infants and their mothers. Controlling vitamin D level during pregnancy, especially in women at risk of preterm labor and preterm infants may help reduce prematurity problems.


Premature infants, vitamin D, gestational age


Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Midwifery, School of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon

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